The general objective is to investigate the feasibility of artificial upwelling in the ocean as a means of CO2 removal from technical, ecological, biogeochemical, economic, and legal perspectives.

Specific objectives: In order to achieve a comprehensive assessment of artificial upwelling in terms of its technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness, its CO2 removal potential, its economic viability in terms of a cost-benefit trade-off, as well as the regulatory framework and governance requirements, Test-ArtUp aims to:

(1) Simulate forced upwelling using a hydromechanical model to estimate and optimise nutrient transport in realistic ocean scenarios;

(2) Design, build and test an artificial upwelling device suitable for long-term offshore use;

(3) estimate the CO2 removal capacity of natural plankton ecosystems under different modes of artificial upwelling and assess the associated environmental risks and ecological side effects;

(4) Implement the experimental results and field observations into a biogeochemical ocean circulation model and quantify CO2 sequestration potential and long-term storage;

(5) examine the economic viability of CO2 removal through artificial upwelling and perform a cost-benefit analysis;

(6) review the existing international legal regulations and principles that apply to implementing artificial upwelling in areas within and outside of national jurisdiction, and assess what changes may be necessary to provide an adequate regulatory framework for the management of artificial upwelling;

(7) initiate a stakeholder dialogue with the goal of learning about the needs of relevant stakeholder groups, opening opportunities for co-design of research activities, communicating the results of this project to interested sectors, and providing best practice recommendations (technical, environmental, economic and legal) for the implementation of artificial upwelling.

The results of Test-ArtUp will be combined to formulate recommendations for responsible and environmentally-friendly use of artificial upwelling.